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However, the band continued to make grungy-poppy music together for another decade, announcing an indefinite hiatus in Perhaps frustrated with being pegged as a one-hit wonder, Harvey Danger broke up in Share Tweet Submit Pin. Goldberg was a long-time scholar and collector of Edgefield stoneware. He wrote the observations and assessments presented in this article in the autumn of Goldberg passed away on 6 March This article has been updated and finalized with Deborah A.

Goldberg, Ph. Awareness of David Dave Drake, the enslaved potter-poet, has slowly and progressively grown over the years, with him now recognized as an important historical figure. The legacy of Dave, based on what we know about him today, is the result of the significant contributions of a number of key ceramic scholars. Some of his achievements will be highlighted. Dave was born in approximately in an area then known as the Edgefield District of South Carolina.

The trajectory of his life was enmeshed in remarkable developments of the pottery industry in that area and time period. As an enslaved individual, Dave was owned by various members of the extended family of Abner Landrum, until he attained emancipation with the Civil War. Dave continued work as an accomplished potter after the War, and died sometime between and He appears to have started working in pottery production early in his life.

By , Abner Landrum developed an alkaline glaze for use on stoneware pottery for the first time in the Americas. The Edgefield area possessed natural resources that aided such developments, including an abundance of high-quality clay deposits, extensive forests for fuel and wood ash, water sources, and mineral elements.

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These potteries in Edgefield were surrounded by large-scale cotton plantations during the antebellum. The Landrums focused on producing stoneware storage vessels for sale to those plantations, where the vessels were used for rationing out food for large populations of enslaved laborers Goldberg and Witkowski Goldberg, Arthur F. Crocks, jars, and jugs of varied sizes were turned on wheels, finished with alkaline glaze, and burned in large-scale kilns. As Dave developed his skills in pottery, he mastered the challenges of shaping heavy, dense clay into vessels of prodigious size Figure 1.

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At a time when most potters were only comfortable turning pots of 3—5 gallons in size, Dave routinely produced jars of 10 gallons capacity and turned pieces as large as 40 gallons in size. In fact, several potters in North Carolina, including Mark Hewitt, Daniel Johnston, and Kim Jones, are engaged in a current movement of monumentalism, creating pots of 20 gallons or more in size.

Moreover, Dave learned to read and write, and began to incise poetry into utilitarian pottery that was mundane in purpose and yet astounding in execution Goldberg and Witkowski Goldberg, Arthur F. Arthur Goldberg discussed the history of alkaline-glazed stoneware vessels created by David Drake at the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts in October , surrounded by a sample of vessel types and sizes. Photograph by James Witkowski, courtesy of Deborah A. Figure 1. From , when a signed Dave poem-jar was first found, to the recognition of Dave as a historical figure honored by his induction into the South Carolina Hall of Fame in , took almost years.

Knowledge about Dave began in and when the Charleston Museum, South Carolina, received a donation of two Dave signed poem-jars. The workplace identity of Dave was unknown until about 45 years later when, in the late s, Carlee McClendon found a period newspaper article identifying Dave as a slave potter working at Dr. New York : W. McClendon and members of his family became major advocates and collectors of Edgefield District alkaline-glazed stoneware, which included Dave-made vessels. They promoted the Edgefield tradition, created the Pottersville Museum, and a newspaper.

All of them appreciated the beauty, importance, and significance of Southern stoneware. Dave was part of that legacy. Georgeanna Greer and Stanley South began discussing the characteristics of alkaline-glazed stoneware in conference presentations and in later, published papers, in the early s South South, Stanley A. Academic analysis of the subject was presented more fully in John A. Burrison recognized that Southern alkaline-glazed stoneware had its own history and beauty that deserved a place among other United States pottery types such as salt-glazed stoneware, lead-glazed redware, and slip-glazed brownware.

He stated that research had been conducted on New York, New England, and New Jersey potteries, but there were few studies on Middle Atlantic and Midwest states, let alone ceramics from the South and the West. Burrison Burrison, John A. This was an important contribution to educate curators, collectors, and the public in order to initiate further research. Most importantly, Burrison noted the vitality and beauty of alkaline-glazed stoneware with its unpredictable flowing glazes and its uniqueness in the annals of European-American ceramics.

The alkaline-glaze stoneware tradition continues today in multiple wood-fired potteries throughout the South. Excellent surveys and studies about Dave and his ceramics have been published e. Athens : University of Georgia Press. Eaton , PA : Schiffer. Interest in this Edgefield pottery tradition inspired research on related pottery histories in other states, including Georgia, North Carolina, and Alabama e. Alabama Folk Pottery. Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press.

For many years Stephen Ferrell has been a major figure informing the public about Dave and Edgefield alkaline-glazed stoneware. As the master potter at the Old Edgefield Pottery, he has also exhibited Dave jars, quoted Dave verses and discussed Southern stoneware. He has shared his encyclopedic knowledge with others. As an avocational archaeologist, he discovered and investigated major pottery sites in the district. His father, Reverend Terry M. Ferrell, contributed his knowledge as well.

In the rear of his antique shop on the town square in Edgefield, he had a small ceramic museum open to all. This exhibition, presented at three South Carolina museums, gave the broad public the opportunity to see a comprehensive exhibit of Southern stoneware for the first time, including four Dave poem-jars. Credit for this exhibition went to the leadership of the Greenville County Museum of Art, who, as early as April , proposed to create an exhibition on nineteenth-century Edgefield ceramics.

This took place the following year. They were prescient to recognize the importance and significance of these ceramics. Fortunately, the exhibition was curated by the ceramic scholars, Steve and Terry Ferrell, who also wrote an excellent catalogue Ferrell and Ferrell Ferrell, Stephen T. This was a major contribution to the field, having the mission to educate the public and to demonstrate the importance of Edgefield ceramics. The pottery facility became a central place to study and discuss Southern ceramics. Stephen Ferrell worked here for about 20 years.

The pottery facility continues today, with other artists in residence. His interest and support for Edgefield stoneware started in the s along with the McClendons. As part of their living history project, Rainsford and the ECHS had a plan to eventually construct a ground-hog kiln. The exhibition included four of his jars, two with verses. A storage jar created by Dave Drake at the Lewis Miles pottery in Photograph by Gavin Ashworth, courtesy of Deborah A. Figure 2. Figure 3. Reverse side of the storage jar illustrated and described in Figure 2.

During the intervening years, Georgeanna Greer, in her important book, American Stonewares: The Art and Craft of Utilitarian Potters , included a full page illustration of her gallon Dave verse-jar and a smaller picture of a dated one. Multiple images of alkaline-glazed vessels and accompanying texts about the different potteries were presented in this publication. Her erudite book was widely read. She popularized Southern ceramics that had been neglected in the past literature and brought increased attention to the pottery made by Dave Greer Greer, Georgeanna H.

Archaeological surveys of the area of the Edgefield District were undertaken in the late s. The findings from those surveys contributed to later publications by Catherine Horne Horne, Catherine W. Diachronic Research, Columbia, SC. McKissick also published an accompanying catalogue on the Southern alkaline-glazed stoneware tradition. This exhibition was followed by the publication of one of the most important books written on Southern alkaline-glazed stoneware tradition. Cinda Baldwin Baldwin, Cinda K. She included a significant section on Dave and his pottery.

The book fulfilled the vision and purpose of a grant received by the McKissick Museum in from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Baldwin was hired as research investigator for that purpose. Her research on this subject was also included in her chapter in the Crossroads of Clay catalogue when she was a principal researcher and collaborator on that project Baldwin Baldwin, Cinda K.

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Horne , 41 — The staff of the McKissick Museum have played a major role for many years with their research and exhibitions to firmly establish David Drake as an important individual and potter-poet in the South Carolina alkaline-glazed stoneware tradition. Considerable credit must be given to the late Jill Koverman, curator at the Museum, whose outstanding genealogical and ceramic research identified Dave as a specific individual.

She documented his life as an enslaved individual who belonged to a number of different masters. Twenty-four Dave verse jars were exhibited along with other stoneware. April 25, Symposium. Columbia : University of South Carolina. An Educators Guide. I Made This Jar. Included were chapters on making pottery, Dave jars, a list of his incised poems, and a set of slides, as well as sections on Teacher Background, Curriculum, Lesson Plans, and Resource Materials.

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This guide is as useful today as when it was first published. In , a Dave stoneware jar was loaned to the Milwaukee Art Museum to become the centerpiece of an exhibition organized by the Chicago performance artist, musician, and potter Theaster Gates, Jr. My Name is Dave: A Hymnal. Milwaukee , WI : Chipstone Foundation. Afterwards, for four years, the jar remained in a unique presentation, rotating on a stand at the entrance to the American Collection Galleries of the Museum.

In front of the jar, a computer permitted the public to write couplets that were projected on a screen behind the jar, resulting in an interactive experience. Photo courtesy of the Chipstone Foundation. Figure 4. With the Dave jar in place, Ethan W. Their purpose was expressed by Lasser Lasser, Ethan W. This was undertaken from the perspective that Dave had learned to read and write while enslaved, and that students could appreciate the adversities he confronted and try to do the same, attaining literacy and in turn developing more self-esteem and elements of success.

In their Chipstone Galleries, Dave jars have been viewed by 50, students who visited the Museum, as well as students annually who participated in an American Studies Tour of the Museum A. Goldberg, April 27, , pers. Goldberg, June 18, , pers. What is unique in Milwaukee is the incorporation of the visual arts to help solve social issues, resulting in an inspiring, long-term impact. Dave the Potter: Artist, Poet, Slave.

Illustrated by Bryan Collier. New York : Little Brown. An invited ceramic historian lectured to the students about Dave, answered their questions, and brought a Dave jar to the class. Another positive result was that teachers at two other schools were stimulated to do the same. Perhaps this may establish a precedent for similar programs that will be adapted by the Aiken County Public School District for all grades in that area of South Carolina. The South Carolina Department of Education in Columbia does not have a teaching curriculum related to Dave Drake, but does allow individual schools to have one.

There is no official curriculum in the Aiken and Edgefield County Public School Districts, the area where Dave lived and where his alkaline-glazed stoneware was made in the antebellum period.

How Dave learned to read and write, and why different masters allowed him to inscribe on the pots knowing that they were at risk legally to themselves as well as Dave, is not known. One can only speculate. Dave may have learned from a member of the Landrum family or from a surreptitious tutor. One must also consider that he may have in large part been self-taught like Frederick Douglass. Certainly Dave exhibited superior intelligence in his writings and pottery skills sufficient to learn on his own.

He created ceramic art in the Southern alkaline-glazed stoneware tradition. Writing poetry on stoneware vessels during the nineteenth century was not in the American ceramic tradition. Dave created a new artistic genre see, e. His vessels became more personal, allowing individuals, in a sense, to communicate directly with them. For many this becomes a spiritual moment. Ceramic connoisseurs understand this feeling when they observe a great example of ceramic art, as evidenced by observing the facial expressions of viewers when they touch a Dave jar, and especially his signature.

In addition, his potting skills were exceptional to be able to make some of the largest jars known at that time in the United States. In this regard, Michael A. Goldberg, , pers. Dave will become better known in academia with his inclusion in the recently published pioneering survey by Lisa Farrington, African-American Art: A Visual and Cultural History. A collaboration between P.

The group performed at the University of Delaware campus, with an event open to the large, local community, with the purpose of informing and educating the public about Dave University of Delaware University of Delaware. Celebrate the Legacy of Dave the Potter. As part of his legacy, early in his career Dave incised on two jars inscriptions that clearly demonstrate that he was advocating the abolition of slavery. Today, he would be called a civil rights advocate. The first word was Concatination Concatenation , incised 12 June and Catination Catenation , incised 12 April , was the other.

Both words are defined as a linking together, as in a series of chains — words most probably written by Dave as an allusion to slavery. To raise the idea of emancipation in a slave community was a bold, daring, and defiant act. These words were written at a time when anti-literacy laws punished the slave with whipping and fines and imprisonment for white individuals assisting a slave to read and write.

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In the early s in the United States, there were a number of abolition leaders, who should be noted.